Air Pollution: Shorter Life, More Dementia Risk, Worse Thinking

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Three recent studies have demonstrated that breathing polluted air has significant negative effects, including a shorter lifespan, greater risk of dementia, and diminished cognitive capacity.


Life Expectancy
Airborne PM(Particulate Matter)2.5 is material less than 2.5 micrometers, which can be seen only with electron microscopes. Being so small, they can travel deeply into our lungs with quite harmful effects. They are produced from car & truck exhausts, industrial plants include coal-fired powerplants, and also include dust produced by windstorms. Averaged across the globe, breathing them typically cuts up to a year off lifespans, and in areas of greater pollution, up to two years.

Here are three links to media articles on the work:
Air pollution reduces global life expectancy by more than one year
Air pollution is shaving a year off our average life expectancy
Lowering air pollution just a bit would increase life expectancy as much as eradicating lung and breast cancer

Here is the research publication:
Ambient PM2.5 Reduces Global and Regional Life Expectancy
These links have been added to Aging


Dementia Risk

This study involved a sample of 130,978 adults living in London between 2005 and 2013. The participants were between 50 and 79 years old. Broadly, even after making adjustments for factors such as smoking and social status/class, those from the most polluted areas of London were much more at risk of dementia (40% more) than those from the least polluted areas.

Here are two links to media articles on the research:
Is air pollution tied to higher dementia risk?
Air pollution linked to much greater risk of dementia

Here is the research publication:
Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England


Diminished Cognitive Capacity
Living with air pollution very likely reduces your intelligence, as measured by test scores for arithmetic and language. The effect can, on average, be as if one had lost a year of eduction. For people over 64, for men, and for those with lower education, the effect can be even greater.

An international research team carried out the research in China using 20,000 people, between 2010 and 2014. People who were exposed longer to polluted air had greater damage to their intelligence. Language ability was hurt more than mathematical ability, and men were harmed more than women.

Here are three links to media articles on the research work:

Air Pollution Exposure Harms Cognitive Performance, Study Finds
Study shows air pollution may be causing cognitive decline in people

Here is the research publication:
The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance

The last two groups of links have been added to Alzheimer’s > Risk Factors

Your Heart And Your Brain

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One is in your head, the other in your chest. But of course they’re deeply interconnected. Looking at it from your brain’s point of view, what’s good for your heart is also good for your head. A major French study reported in August quantifies that, using the American Heart Association (AHA)’s notion of Life’s Simple 7:

Blood pressure
Blood sugar
Cholesterol
Diet
Exercise
Smoking status
Weight management

The better one manages each of these, the lower one’s risk of dementia.

Here are links to media articles about heart health and dementia:
The more you do to promote your cardiovascular health, the lower your risk of dementia
Midlife heart health shows a link with future risk of dementia
Better heart health may mean lower dementia risk in older people
These 7 heart-healthy factors could cut your risk of dementia, a new study finds

Here are two health organization posts on heart health and dementia:
Dementia and Heart Health: Are They Related?
Risk factors for heart disease linked to dementia

Research article:
Association of Cardiovascular Health Level in Older Age With Cognitive Decline and Incident Dementia

All links have been added to Aging, Alzheimer’s > Amelioration/Prevention and Alzheimer’s > Risk Factors

Exercise Is Best For Survival

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A massive long-term study from Cleveland Clinic, published two days ago, shows that there is no such thing as too much exercise, and that too little exercise is a mortality risk factor greater than smoking or diabetes. The study followed 122,007 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing at Cleveland Clinic between Jan. 1, 1991, and Dec. 31, 2014, to measure the association between aerobic fitness and mortality due to any cause.

The researchers found that there is a direct relationship between greater aerobic fitness and lower risk of mortality:

  • The higher a person’s level of fitness, the lower their risk of dying, with very high levels of fitness having very strong positive effects for people over 70, and
  • The lower a person’s level of fitness, the greater their risk of dying, with the most sedentary persons have a greater risk of mortality than the risks produced by coronary artery disease, smoking, or diabetes.

 
Here are links to three media articles about the study, together with a link to the original research publication:
Researchers show better cardiorespiratory fitness leads to longer life
Confirmed: Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness Predicts Lower Mortality
New study says not exercising is pretty much the worst thing you can possibly do
Research article:
Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Long-term Mortality Among Adults Undergoing Exercise Treadmill Testing

The links have been filed under Health > Physical Exercise and Aging

Your Brain On Alcohol

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No definitive smoking gun on alcohol use has yet been presented, but the evidence leans heavily against it. Two very large direct studies and one huge meta study have recently appeared, and they largely point to increased risk of dementia as well as of cardiometabolic disease (includes stroke, coronary heart disease, and diabetes).

Media articles:
No healthy level of alcohol consumption, says major study
There’s no risk-free amount of alcohol, population-level study finds
Study:
Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Media articles:
Heavy Drinking Tied to Early-Onset Dementia in French Study
Study:
Contribution of alcohol use disorders to the burden of dementia in France 2008–13: a nationwide retrospective cohort study.

Media article:
Both long term abstinence and heavy drinking may increase dementia risk
Editorial:
Relation between alcohol consumption in midlife and dementia in late life (Editorial)
Study:
Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study

All of the links have been added to Alzheimers > Risk Factors and Health > Diet

Incidence of Alzheimer’s increasing, including rich and famous

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The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States and the world continues to rise. A recent study predicts that around 15 million Americans will have either Alzheimer’s dementia or mild cognitive impairment by 2060 (up from approximately 6.08 million in 2018). Here are links to a media article about the study and to the study abstract:

Population of Americans with Alzheimer’s will more than double by 2060
Study abstract:
Forecasting the prevalence of preclinical and clinical Alzheimer’s disease in the United States

Sadly, Ted Turner, founder of CNN and Turner Broadcasting, granted an interview to CBS in which he revealed that he is suffering from Dementia with Lewy Bodies, a dementia related to Alzheimer’s:

Ted Turner reveals he has Lewy body dementia
Ted Turner reveals he’s battling Lewy body dementia in exclusive interview

All links have been added to Epidemiology .

Is It Possible Alzheimer’s Is An Infectious Disease?

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Although a “germ theory” approach to Alzheimer’s has occasionally be advocated for years, it has never developed the traction of a “major” approach to the disease. Recently, evidence has begun accumulating that certain viruses, particularly the HHV-6 and HHV-7 human herpes viruses may be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s, albeit in a complex way (see Herpes & Alzheimer’s and Herpes & Alzheimer’s — More). A new article discussing this together with a new initiatives to explore the “germ theory” approach to Alzheimer’s has just been published:

Two striking statistics cited in that article are the following:

All links have been added to Alzheimer’s > Neurology & Neuroplasticity

Mediterranean Diet Appears to Prolog Life in Elderly

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It’s already well-known that the Mediterranean Diet appears to be quite beneficial for heart health, and to aid in resisting atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes:

Mediterranean diet: A heart-healthy eating plan

What’s to know about the Mediterranean diet?

In addition, the Mediterranean Diet has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of dementia:

Mediterranean Diet: Better than ever for your Brain

Mediterranean/MIND Diet Seriously Fights Alzheimer’s/Dementia

Now, a new study has suggested that adopting the Mediterranean Diet, even in old age, can prolog life. Here are two media articles on the study, together with a link to the study abstract:

Adopting Mediterranean diet in old age can prolong life, study suggests

Mediterranean Diet Could Help Older Adults Prolong Life, Study Says

Mediterranean diet and mortality in the elderly: a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis

All three links have been added to Aging and Health > Diet

Category: Aging, Diet, Health

Sleep, Aging, and Dementia

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We’ve added links to two broad extensive guides about sleep: for aging in general, and for dementia in particular. Although appearing on a bedding manufacturer’s site, these are well-done, and the level of advertising is restrained.

The first link to a guide is:
Sleep and Aging – Senior Sleep Guide
This link has been added to Aging

The second link to a guide is:
Dementia and Sleep Disorders.
This link has been added to Alzheimer’s > Risk Factors

Nine Factors Contributing to Dementia — You Can Manage Them

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The Lancet publishing group organized a commission of medical experts to address the state of Prevention, Intervention, and Care of Dementia. The report was presented in July of 2017:
The Lancet International Commission on Dementia Prevention and Care.
(The document is only http, not https; just tell your browser to go ahead anyway.) Nine specific contributing factors to the risk of dementia were listed, all of them manageable by individuals. Collectively, these factors accounted for more than a third of the risk of dementia. The report groups these factors by early-/mid-/late-life periods of major effect, and assigns a percentage number indicating the reduction in dementia risk that would be achieved by properly handling that factor. These factors, grouped and with assigned risk reduction values, were:

Factor % responsible for risk
Early-Life:
Failing to complete secondary education – –  8%
Mid-Life:
Hearing loss – –  9%
High blood pressure – –  2%
Obesity – –  1%
Late-Life
Smoking – –  5%
Failing to seek early treatment for Depression – –  4%
Physical inactivity (lack of exercise) – –  3%
Social isolation – –  2%
Type 2 diabetes – –  1%


Total potential risk reduction: 35%

The report also mentioned several additional lifestyle factors or life events for which conclusive data were not available, but which are likely to be significant for risk reduction:

  • Adhering to the Mediterranean diet
  • Limiting alcoholic intake to only moderate amounts
  • Avoidance of head injuries
  • Management of sleep disorders
  • Bilingualism
  • Living away from major roads

The following excellent info graphic about the factors appears in the report:

It is definitely worth noting that the three major interventions recommended by the expert panel of the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) were:

Exercise, Manage Blood Pressure, Engage in Brain Training.

These solidly overlap with the Lancet recommendations. (See 3 Good Things To Do For Your Brain: Exercise, Manage Blood Pressure, Brain Training).

Here are four media articles about the Lancet report:
Nine lifestyle changes can reduce dementia risk, study says
Lifestyle changes could prevent a third of dementia cases, report suggests
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170720094907.htm
Is Dementia Preventable?

All links have been added to Alzheimer’s > Amelioration/Prevention.

Exercise, Brain And Heart

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Not only is exercise good for dealing with depression, but — as many of us would testify — it boosts happiness and contentment, as shown by a recent large scale review of exercise-related studies. The review combined 23 mostly observational studies published since 1980, combined involving over 500,000 people, of all ages and a wide range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups, and studied the relationship between their exercise and the their positive feelings (i.e., happiness).

Here are two media articles on the review:
Get moving to get happier, study finds
Even a Little Exercise Might Make Us Happier
Here is the research review:
A Systematic Review of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Happiness

And there’s more. It’s likely that exercise can help middle-aged people reduce their risk of heart disease:
Middle-aged can reverse heart risk with exercise, study suggests

And exercise helps deal with chronic stress, even including the stress of advanced Alzheimer’s. Here are several media articles and research reports on the effect.

How Strenuous Exercise Affects Our Immune System
Meet the man living with Alzheimer’s who climbs the same mountain every day
Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

Running exercise mitigates the negative consequences of chronic stress on dorsal hippocampal long-term potentiation in male mice.

All links have been added to Health > Physical Exercise

Category: Physical Exercise